21 year old man presented to ED with fatigue and weakness. His blood gases showed the following:
PH = 7.236
PCO2 = 30 mmol/L
PH = 7.415, this is within normal range. slightly more to the alkelaemic side.
pCO2 = 34 mmHg, that is slightly low, this patient is hyperventilating. (Normal pCO2 is 40 mmHg on arterial blood and 48 mmHg on venous blood).
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60-year-old women presented to the emergency department compla ining of headache and fatigue. Her venous blood gases showed the following:
PH = 7.415
pCO2 = 34 mmHg
PH = 7.51, that is mild alkalaemia
PCO2 = 28, that is less than 40. So we have respiratory alkalosis.
Compensation for acute respiratory alkalosis: HCO3 drops by 2 mmol/L for every 10 mmHg decrease in pCO2 from 40mmHg. Accordingly, HCO3 should drop by (12 x 0.2) = 2.4, SO expected HCO3 is 21.6 (that is close to 23) so we have pure respiratory alkalosis.
51 year old man, recently returned from the middle east, presented with shortness of breath. His CXR was normal. His arterial blood gases showed the following:
PH = 7.51
PaCO2 = 28 mmHg
PO2 = 56 mmHg
Hb = 115 g/L, that is mild anaemia. (Remember, anaemia happens when blood cells don’t have enough haemoglobin or there is not enough red blood cells).
RCC (red cells count) = 4.3, that is just within the normal range for men, towards the low side.